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Going to a Cleveland Clinic location? No drugs are approved to rapidly reverse the cocaine overdose itself or to treat cocaine addiction. Counseling is the mainstay of treatment. Appointments People snort cocaine through their nose, rub it into their gums, or dissolve it and inject it with a needle into their veins. Drug dealers mix cocaine with other substances so they can have more of the drug to sell. Commonly used fillers include cornstarch or flour or other drugs — such as amphetamines or fentanyl — which can add harmful, and even fatal, side effects to an already unsafe drug.
Crack is cocaine that has been processed so that it can be smoked. When a person smokes crack or powder via freebase cocaine, the drug reaches the brain more rapidly and in higher peak doses than when it is snorted in powder form. Cocaine and crack are dangerous for many reasons. Cocaine and crack use can lead to serious side effects — some life-threatening — including:.
Straight talk - crack
In a person who is addicted, his or her cocaine use becomes an obsession and strong urge that can cause:. Repeated overloading of this brain circuit by cocaine causes changes in the brain in which nothing seems pleasurable without the drug.
The chemicals released in the brain by cocaine also play a role in maintaining normal feelings of happiness. The addict will try to avoid these negative feelings by using more of the drug as soon as these symptoms arise. These actions can ultimately lead to changes in other parts of the brain that result in drug use becoming an obsession and compulsion—like an itch that must be scratched no matter what the outcome.
This is why addicts will continue to use the drug despite all of the negative consequences. The obsession with the drug is also referred to as a craving. There are many health side effects of cocaine use.
Long-term side effects, based on how cocaine is used, include:. Physical symptoms of withdrawal can begin within a few hours and last up to seven days. The inability to enjoy normal pleasure may take longer to recover. As soon at the patient can begin therapy, he or she enters the next phase of addiction treatment. This involves group participation, counseling, and, often, psychiatric evaluation and treatment.
Another therapy strategy uses incentives to motivate by providing rewards to people who remain drug free. This therapeutic approach is also called contingency management. If the addict also suffers from a psychiatric issue, such as depression or bipolar disordersuch issues also need to be treated or else they will probably lead the person to go back to using drugs. No medications are currently approved specifically to treat cocaine addiction. Researchers are studying the use of medications approved for other conditions to treat cocaine addiction.
The medications showing the most promise are psychostimulants, modafinil, bupropion, topiramate and disulfiram.
However, due to small study size and inconsistentthere is no strong support for any individual drug at this time. A cocaine vaccine is in early testing stage. The hope of this vaccine is to reduce the risk of relapse and the return to cocaine use.
Effects of crack cocaine
The vaccine works by stimulating the production of cocaine-specific antibodies. These antibodies bind to cocaine, preventing it from crossing the blood-brain barrier and stimulating the pleasure center. So far, studies in humans have shown mixed. Some patients with high levels of antibodies were better in abstaining from cocaine. However, other studies showed no difference in ability to abstain between those with higher levels of antibodies versus those who received a placebo vaccine. No drugs are currently available to rapidly reverse the cocaine overdose itself.
However, emergency care would treat the life-threatening side effects — the stroke, seizures, and heart attack — that the overdose may have caused. Serious side effects, including seizures, stroke, heart attacks and irregular heartbeats, can happen even with a single use of cocaine. If enough cocaine is taken or if the cocaine is combined with heroin, fentanyl, or other stimulants or opioids, someone could have life-threatening side effects or even die.
Most drug users deny that they have a problem, and push family and friends away. You may feel helpless, frustrated, and unable to cope.
You can get help by contacting a local drug abuse treatment center. You should also do the following:. To learn more about addiction and to find drug and alcohol treatment programs in your area, check the following websites:. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Cocaine Crack Addiction Cocaine and crack are dangerous, addictive drugs that can lead to serious side effects including sudden cardiac death, brain seizures, heart attack and stroke.
What is crack? What's so bad about cocaine and crack? Cocaine and crack use can lead to serious side effects — some life-threatening — including: Sudden cardiac death. Brain seizures. Increased blood pressure. Heart attack. Violent actions. Loss of ability to perform sexually.
Addiction, even after one try. In a person who is addicted, his or her cocaine use becomes an obsession and strong urge that can cause: Loss of control over his or her life. A willingness to do anything to get more cocaine. Spending a tremendous amount of money on his or her habit. A loss of interest in friends, family, and social activities. Symptoms and Causes How do people become addicted to cocaine? What are the s that someone is becoming addicted or is already addicted to cocaine?
A person who is becoming addicted or is addicted to cocaine will show s including: Periods of severe depression.
How do i know if someone is on crack?
Weight loss. Not taking care of personal hygiene or appearance. Constant runny nose. Frequent upper respiratory infections.
Changes in sleep patterns. Loss of interest in friends, family, and social activities. Loss of interest in food, sex, or other pleasures. Becoming more angry, impatient, or nervous.
Experiencing hallucinations. Unable to explain having large sums of money. Offering sex for money to get drugs.
What are the long term side effects of taking cocaine? Long-term side effects, based on how cocaine is used, include: From snorting: nosebleeds, running nose, loss of smell, hole in the nasal septum the wall dividing the two sides of the nosehole in the roof of the mouth, swallowing problems. From smoking: cough, irregular breathing, asthmaincreased risk of lung infections including pneumonia and bronchitis.
Crack cocaine symptoms and warning s
From absorption through gums in the mouth: mouth sores ulcers on the gums and the underlying bone, receding gums, chronic gingivitis inflammation of the gum tissuedry mouth, tooth decay. Other general long-term effects include: Severe weight loss and malnourishment. Management and Treatment How is cocaine and crack addiction treated? Withdrawal symptoms include: Muscle tremors.
Severe headache. Increased appetite. Slowed thinking.